Dark fermentative hydrogen production has been performed in a

In the “RECYCLING-FROM E-WASTE TO RESOURCES” reported by UNEP in 2009, approximately 130 million waste mobile phones are generated annually in the US (
Programme des Nations Unies pour l’;environnement and Schluep, 2009
). As a typical federal system country, the US had no federal law for the management of WEEE (
). However, states in the US have introduced their own legislations of WEEE (waste mobile phones included) (
). As an example, California promulgated the first act called <the Cell Phone Recycling Act of 2004, AB2901>, which required mobile phone retailers to develop the recycling activities of waste mobile phones (
). Members of Congress proposed <U.S. Congress - H.R.320 Tax Incentives to Encourage Recycling Act of 2005> to encourage manufacturers to recycle waste mobile phones in 2005. The manufacturers received a
Food supply chain; Food loss; Food waste; Lean manufacturing; Nutrient loss; Value Stream Mapping
1. Introduction
The year 2016 represents the start of the global challenge for reaching the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (Kumar et al., 2016 and Sachs, 2012). While there is no doubt that the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) accelerated progress in fighting hunger and malnutrition between 2000 and 2015, the major threat to food security in the SDG-era is expected to be reinforced by population growth and adverse climatic changes (Hanjra et al., 2013 and Wheeler and von Braun, 2013). And although increasing food production as such is often considered as a key solution, it comes at a high cost i.e. utilizing the already scarce resources such as clean water, land, protected areas and forests, that are necessary for a healthy environment and Sulfo-NHS-Biotin (Godfray et al., 2010 and Phalan et al., 2011). Since one-third of food produced is lost or wasted along the supply chain (Gustavsson et al., 2011), dedicated efforts ought to be directed toward the implementation of innovative measures from farm to fork, thereby not only ensuring the delivery of significant quantities of food, but also retaining the level of nutrients in those foods (Ruel et al., 2013). In this context, literature distinguishes “food losses”, a decrease in edible food mass occurring during production, postharvest and processing from “food wastes”, any raw or cooked food mass that is discarded at retail and consumption (Gustavsson et al., 2011, Kummu et al., 2012, Miller and Welch, 2013 and Parfitt et al., 2010). Together, they are defined as “food supply chain losses”, referring to each stage along the chain where a given proportion of food that is initially meant for consumption does not reach the intended consumer (Richter and Bokelmann, 2016 and Willersinn et al., 2015).
From an economic point of view, initiatives that tackle food losses and wastes (FLW) are not only beneficial to those food producers aiming to sell more, but also to consumers who could save money as the available food becomes more affordable (Rutten, 2013), and enhance their energy and nutrient intake, when also quality losses in food would be addressed (Almdal et al., 2003, Barton et al., 2000 and Edwards and Nash, 1999). A study by Rutten (2013) shows that reduction of FLW has potential to lower food prices particularly in favour of net food consumers but not net food producers. Similarly, FLW reduction efforts in developed countries might lower food prices in image developing countries (Rutten et al., 2015), save resources that can be used to feed a hungry population and boost efficiency along their supply chains (Buzby and Hyman, 2012). Although such changes are said to potentially improve accessibility to nutritious foods among vulnerable households (Brinkman et al., 2010 and Gustavsson et al., 2011), there is need to better address food and nutrient losses or wastes simultaneously in order to reach some of the SDGs. First of all, perishable products that are highly nutritious such as vegetables, fruits, dairy, meat and fish, are often more prone to loss and wastage along the supply chain than staple foods, like cereals (Yu and Nagurney, 2013). Post-harvest losses in such foods are singled
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