In addition to the molecular structures of

In addition to the molecular structures of the flocculants and the treated pollutants, the properties of the flocs formed in the flocculation process, including floc size, fractal structure, regrowth ability, and settling rate, must be considered in any detailed analyses of flocculation mechanisms. These properties can be studied by image analysis or light-scattering technique in combination with fractal BMS387032 (Mandelbrot, 1983, Serra, 1992 and Wei et?al., 2009). Among them, fractal dimension is one of the most important and powerful quantitative parameters in the fractal concept (Zhou and Franks, 2006), which indicates the space-filling capacity (Thomas et al., 1999), i.e., the compactness of the floc. Larger fractal dimensions signify image more compact flocs. There are two commonly used fractal dimensions: two- (D2) and three-dimensional (i.e., mass fractal dimension, or DF) presentations. D2 is proteins defined by the power law relationship between the projected area (A) and the characteristic length (l) (Eq. (4.1)), which is usually measured by image analysis ( Chakraborti et?al., 2000 and Cai et?al., 2013). DF is the power law relationship between mass (m) and l, which can be obtained by light-scattering since light intensity (I) is directly proportional to m and scatter vector (Q) is inverse to l (Eq. (4.2)) (Jarvis et al., 2005).equation(4.1)A∝lD2A∝lD2equation(4.2)I∝Q−DFI∝Q−DF
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