Global demands on CC-930
coupling with the recent drive towards renewable power exploration have brought pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) into attention worldwide (Loeb and Norman, 1975 and Thorsen and Holt, 2009). PRO is an emerging osmotically-driven membrane
process in which water spontaneously flows across a semipermeable membrane from a low salinity feed to a high salinity draw solution against an uphill trans-membrane hydraulic pressure. The salinity gradient energy is then harvested as osmotic power by converting the high pressure in the draw solution compartment via energy
exchange devices ( Han et?al., 2015a, Loeb and Norman, 1975 and Thorsen and Holt, 2009). Comparing to the conventional energy generation processes, PRO is a much cleaner and environmentally friendly technology since negligible CO2 is emitted during energy production, making it an important strategic thrust in solving global energy and sustainability puzzles ( Chu and Majumdar, 2012 and Gerstandt et?al., 2008).